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How Do VLANs Work?

Closeup of networking equipment

Written by Brent Quick

October 9, 2017

How do VLANs work? This is a common networking question. But, before we dive into the particulars of how they work, you need to understand what they are and the differences between the available types. Let’s get started.

What is a VLAN?

Virtual Local Area Networks (VLANs) separate an existing physical network into multiple logical networks. Thus, each VLAN creates its own broadcast domain. Communication between two VLANs can only occur through a router that is connected to both. VLANs work as though they are created using independent switches.

VLAN Types

In short, there are 2 types of VLANs:

  • Port-based VLANs (untagged)
  • Tagged VLANs

Port-based VLANs

With port-based VLANs, a single physical switch is simply divided into multiple logical switches. The following example divides an eight-port physical switch (Switch A) into two logical switches.
VLAN–1

Eight-port switch with two port-based VLANs 

Source: https://www.thomas-krenn.com/en/wiki/VLAN_Basics 

Switch A

Switch-Port VLAN ID Connected device
1 1

(green)

PC A-1
2 PC A-2
3 (not used)
4 (not used)
5 2

(orange)

PC A-5
6 PC A-6
7 (not used)
8 (not used)

Although all of the PCs have been connected to one physical switch, only the following PCs can communicate with each other due to the configuration of the VLAN:

  • PC A-1 with PC A-2 -VLAN 1 – Green
  • PC A-5 with PC A-6 – VLAN 2 – Orange

 

To extend this example, assume that there are also four PCs in the neighboring room that PC A-1 and PC A-2 should be able to communicate with called PC B-1 and PC B-2. Communication between PC B-5 and PC B-6 in Room 2 and PC A-5 and PC A-6 in room one is required while preventing A1-2 & B1-2 (Green) from communication with A5-6 & B5-6 (Orange) or the reverse. To do this we need another switch in the second room.

Diagram of 2 VLANs

Two eight-port switches with two port-based VLANs 

Source: https://www.thomas-krenn.com/en/wiki/VLAN_Basics 

Switch B

Switch-Port VLAN ID Connected device
1 1

(green)

PC B-1
2 PC B-2
3 (not used)
4 (not used)
5 2

(orange)

PC B-5
6 PC B-6
7 (not used)
8 (not used)

Two cables will be required for connecting both VLANs.

  • One cable from Switch A Port 4 to Switch B Port 4 for VLAN 1 – Green
  • One from Switch A Port 8 to Switch B Port 8 for VLAN 2 – Orange

 

Connection of both VLANs to the physical switch and since it is port-based, one cable per VLAN is required.  Additionally, the PC’s can only see their VLAN  and the other PC on the same one.  Connection to infrastructure would use one port per VLAN, configured as shown below.  For VLAN 1 either port A-3 or B-3 could be used to connect and only one should be to avoid a route loop.  Same applies for VLAN 2 where either A-7 or B-7 could be used but not both, so again two cables total or one per VLAN.  If this seems like a wiring nightmare it is which is why port based is used only where the interconnecting devices cannot understand VLAN ID’s encapsulated into the internet frame called tagging.

Tagged VLANs

With tagged VLANs, multiple VLANs can be used through a single switch port. Tags containing the respective VLAN identifiers indicating the VLAN to which the frame belongs are attached to the individual Ethernet frames as they exit the port. If both switches understand the operation of tagged VLANs, the reciprocal connection can be accomplished using one single cable connecting from a “trunk” port.
Diagram of a tagged VLAN
Source: https://www.thomas-krenn.com/en/wiki/VLAN_Basics 
Connection of both VLANs to both physical switches using a single cable. VLAN tags (IEEE 802.1q) are used to link the trunk port on each switch which allows the separation of VLAN 1 and VLAN 2 traffic without the physical separation. Both ports A-8 and B-8 in this example are “trunk” ports for outbound traffic they have no special configuration for inbound packets. They have no awareness of any VLAN besides 1 & 2 and would drop that traffic. They might accept untagged traffic and make a routing decision based on the default VLAN ID being 1. The untagged frame would be treated as belonging to VLAN 1 and passed. This is not absolute since switches can also be configured to drop untagged frames called broadcast filtering. If an untagged frame is received, it is not likely traffic to be routed but a device requesting a DHCP address or sending an ARP request to determine what MAC address holds a specific IP address, or similar. VLAN tags are set as traffic exits a switch “port” so the next hop device would need to understand 802.1q tags because it changes the ethernet frame when it is inserted.

Structure of an Ethernet Frame

The VLAN tag is added to an Ethernet Frame by MAC address increasing its size by 4 bytes or 32 bits.
Diagram of an Ethernet frame
Source: https://techtalks101.wordpress.com/2016/02/09/vlan-tagging/

Structure of a VLAN Tag

A tag has two primary fields:
Tag protocol identifier or TPIDTag Control Information or TCI.

VLAN Tag protocol diagram
Source: https://techtalks101.wordpress.com/2016/02/09/vlan-tagging/

TPID is a 16-bit or 2-byte field set to a value of 0x8100 to identify the frame as an IEEE 802.1Q-tagged frame. This field is located at the same position as the EtherType/length field in untagged frames, and is thus used to distinguish the frame from untagged frames. A device unable to understand a 802.1q tagged frame would likely drop it as exceeding MTU size.

TCI is also 16-bit or 2-byte in length but has three subcomponents.

Priority code point (PCP) is a 3-bit field which refers to the IEEE 802.1p class of service and is how Quality of Service (Qos) is implemented.

Drop eligible indicator (DEI): a 1-bit field and may be used separately or in conjunction with PCP to indicate frames eligible to be dropped in the presence of congestion requiring frame drops.

VLAN identifier (VID) is a 12-bit field specifying the VLAN to which the frame belongs. The hexadecimal values of 0x000 and 0xFFF are reserved. All other values may be used as VLAN identifiers, allowing up to 4,094 VLANs. The reserved value 0x000 indicates that the frame does not carry a VLAN ID; in this case, the 802.1Q tag specifies only a priority and is referred to as a priority tag. On bridges, VID 0x001 (the default VLAN ID) is often reserved for a management VLAN but the management VLAN should be changed to a non-default ID. The VID value 0xFFF is reserved for implementation use; it must not be configured or transmitted. 0xFFF can be used to indicate a wildcard match in management operations or filtering database entries.

Hopefully, this post has helped you answer the question, “how do VLANs work”. Should you have additional questions, please leave a comment below. Tired of struggling to maintain your business’ networking infrastructure on your own? Let our experts take care of it for you.

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